?    what is lesson study

Abolfazl Bakhtiyari

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 ابوالفضل بختیاری

 Lesson study

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  • Lesson Study (or kenkyu jugyo) is a teaching improvement process that has origins in Japanese elementary education, where it is a widespread ...
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Lesson Study (or kenkyu jugyo) is a teaching improvement process that has origins in Japanese elementary education, where it is a widespread professional development practice. Working in a small group, teachers collaborate with one another, meeting to discuss learning goals, to plan an actual classroom lesson (called a "research lesson"), to observe how it works in practice, and then to revise and report on the results so that other teachers can benefit from it. Despite differences between Japanese and American educational systems (see Education in Japan and Education in the United States), the practice is gaining in popularity in the United States in K-12 education and teacher training, and more recently it is finding a home in higher education as a form of faculty development.

This is a specific example of the on-going Japanese devotion to the Plan-Do-Check-Act PDCA decision-making discipline pioneered by W. Edwards Deming, which is based upon the Shewhart Cycle (named after Deming's collaborator from Bell Telephone Laboratories, Walter A. Shewhart).

[edit] External links

·        Lesson Study Group at Mills College

·        Chicago Lesson Study Group

·        Lesson Study Project (higher education)

·        Integrating mentoring and action research into Kounai-ken: teachers' professional development with Japanese abilities

·        Does Lesson Study Have a Future in the United States?







What is Lesson Study?

Lesson study is the primary form of professional development for Japanese teachers. Its goal

is continual improvement of teaching so that children will learn more. Its primary focus is

how students think and learn.

It differs from other forms of professional development because it takes place in the moment

of teaching and learning. Its focus, as described by Jim Stigler and James Hiebert in The

Teaching Gap, is teaching not teachers, children working, not children’s work. The success of

a lesson study is measured in teachers’ learning, not in the perfection of a lesson. That better

lessons are created is a secondary byproduct of the process but not its primary goal.

Groups of teachers work to formulate lessons that are taught, observed, discussed, and

refined. Teachers engage in lesson study only a couple of times a year because the process is


A lesson study cycle consists of:

• Selecting a focus

• Planning the study lesson

• Public teaching of the lesson

• Focused observation of the lesson based on the group’s goals

• Evidence–based debriefing

• Revision based on the group’s reflection

• Teaching of a revised lesson

• Evidence–based debriefing

Planning is not ordinary lesson planning. An important part of planning a study lesson is

called kyozai kenkyuu, which has been translated by Makoto Yoshida to mean intensive

study of materials. This does not mean textbooks alone, but includes understanding the

topic being taught, examining materials for teaching it, and seeking any research that might

exist. Sometimes a team will call upon an expert in the field to help think through the

content. Along with this, great attention is given to:

· what you want students to know at the end of the lesson

· how to engage or motivate students

· the question to be posed and how best to word it to make students think

· how students are likely to think and how to respond to anticipated errors

· how to arrange the work produced so it tells the story of the lesson, and

· how to end the lesson to help students make sense of it.

All of this is consistent with AFT’s view of effective professional development and the ER&D


For more information on the process, go to www.lessonresearch.net. The article A lesson is

like a swiftly flowing river was published in AFT's journal American Educator.

Questions and Answers

How large must a Lesson Study group be? There is no specified size. Groups can be as small

as three or as large as 16.

How do you get started? It is helpful for those in the group to attend an awareness session on

lesson study (LS) or to attend a study. Several videos are now available for use in such

presentations. A group that is willing to work through the LS cycle should then set a schedule

of meetings over a four to six week period and a date for the lesson to be taught.

What support is necessary? Groups benefit from the guidance of a person knowledgeable

about lesson study. They also may want to involve a content specialist as they work through

questions about content and/or as an observer and commentator. It is essential that

arrangements be made for members of the study group to observe the lesson when it is

taught. A place also should be reserved for the debriefing.

What are key points for a Lesson Study Group to keep in mind?

· The purpose of the study is to learn something about students’ thinking. It is not a

demonstration lesson.

· Comments and reflection should focus on the goals set by the group, not on an

individual teacher or someone else’s agenda.

· Everyone has something to contribute and all ideas should be respected and weighed.

If there were already a recipe for teaching something perfectly all students would be

high achievers and there would be nothing to explore. But teaching is a complex act

and there are many reasons lessons may work in one situation and not in another.

· Do not try to rush the process. Teachers too often try to begin with a lesson in mind

instead of with goals in mind. Even with goals, they want to jump to the lesson before

investigating the how the content develops and what prior knowledge students must


What do teachers get out of Lesson Study?

· Lesson Study at its inner core makes teachers more aware of how students think and


· It reveals the importance of knowing both the big developmental picture of what you

are teaching and the value of paying attention to and working out minute details that

affect student learning.

· It emphasizes the need for clear goals and focused lessons.

· It draws attention to the importance of getting language right.

· It brings home the need to think ahead to how you will close a lesson so students can

make sense of it.

· The learning it produces in teachers is used throughout their teaching.

· Even students have said that they feel good that adults are interested in how they


· It does produce a group of lessons that are available for sharing along with reports of

what works well and what not so well.

AFT Thinking Mathematics Lesson Study Groups

AFT currently supports lesson study groups in Rochester, NY, Volusia County, Fla. and

Scranton, Pa. These groups emerged as a natural and powerful follow-up to training in the

ER&D Thinking Mathematics program.

While Thinking Math provides initial research-based knowledge about how children learn,

lesson study affords a long-term process for applying that knowledge to particular lessons

and deepening it. It is, according to Catherine Lewis, "an ongoing method to improve

instruction based on careful observation of students and their work."

Since teachers in the study groups are from different schools, much of the initial discussion

is online. It is our goal that after initial support from AFT, lesson study groups will continue

on their own and become both school and district-based.

Although we have started the process with mathematics, Lesson Study is a process applicable

to all subjects.

You can access two lesson study reports by clicking the links below.

· What Happens to Area When the Sides of a Square are Doubled? (Revision)


· Volusia County Thinking Math Lesson Study: The Distributive Property


For more information on AFT’s lesson study groups contact Alice Gill in the Educational

Issues Department at agill@aft.org or 202/393-6384.

Lesson Study Comments by Participating AFT Teachers

“A study lesson for once in our professional lives is not about teachers as performers. It’s

about students and what they do and think about, what they get or don’t get from what is

provided for them in the classroom environment.”

Nancy Sundberg

Rochester, NY

“The process of lesson study has been incredible. So much learning has taken place.

Planning the lesson with such care and detail in the wording was so incredibly important.

Just in this step alone, I feel like I have grown.”

Danielle Peters

Rochester, NY

“Lesson study changes you forever as a teacher. You never plan a lesson again without

thinking of student misconceptions, responses, having students clarifying and putting the

responsibility for learning on the students. Students and teachers struggle with learning for

deeper understanding. Both are learners.”

Rebecca LaChapelle

Rochester, NY

And from a veteran Japanese teacher: “A great one-hour lesson is worthless unless we try the

same in our everyday teaching.”

22-year veteran Japanese teacher

Murata & Takahashi (2002)

Links to Lesson Study Sites

Catherine Lewis

Mills College


Research for Better Schools


Makoto Yoshida

Global Education Resources


Clea Fernandez

Lesson Study Group at Columbia








نوشته شده توسط دکترابوالفضل بختیاری(Abolfazl Bakhtiari) در ۸۶/۱۲/۰۴ |